نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

چکیده

پدیده همگرایی در راهروهای معادن زیرزمینی ناشی از جابجایی سقف، کف و دیواره‌های آن است و بر پایداری وابسته به زمان راهرو شدیداً تأثیرگذار است. همگرایی، ساده‌ترین پارامتر برای اندازه‌گیری به شمار می‌آید. با محاسبه میزان همگرایی می‌توان به دیدگاه مناسبی در خصوص فشار اعمال شده بر سیستم نگهداری دست یافت. در این مقاله، رابطه‌ای برای پیش‌بینی میزان همگرایی در راهروهای معادن زیرزمینی زغال‌سنگ از طریق شبیه‌سازی پارامترهای راهروی K21 معدن تزره ارائه شده است. برای تعیین ضرایب متغیرهای مستقل در معادله همگرایی، تحلیل رگرسیون خطی چندگانه با کاربرد کلیه پارامترهای تأثیرگذار در همگرایی به‌گونه‌ای که رابطه‌ای خطی بین پارامترهای مستقل و پارامتر وابسته برقرار باشد، بکار رفته است. اعتبارسنجی مدل ارائه‌شده با بررسی داده‌ها از لحاظ نرمال‌بودن، ثابت‌بودن واریانس و خطی‌بودن رابطه متغیر مستقل و وابسته انجام شده است. مقایسه مقادیر پیش‌بینی شده همگرایی، توسط مدل ارائه‌شده و مقادیر واقعی اندازه‌گیری شده در ایستگاه‌های مورد بررسی، نشان می‌دهد که مدل ارائه شده بخوبی قادر به پیش‌بینی میزان همگرایی در راهروی مورد نظر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A New Model to Estimate the Convergence in Coal Mines’ Galleries (Case Study: K21 Gallery of Tazareh Mine

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.M.E Jalali
  • R Heydari-Sheybani
  • M Noroozi

Shahrood University of Technology

چکیده [English]

Convergence in the galleries of underground tunnels, caused by the displacement of the ceiling, floor and walls, strongly affects the time-dependent stability of the gallery. By estimating the displacement value, the load that will be induced to the support system can be determined. By calculation of the gallery convergence caused by displacement of floor, ceiling and walls, the pressure applied on the support system can be predicted and by thus appropriate design of support system can be done. Yet, analytical   and numerical models  to determine the convergence of mine galleries have been presented. Nonetheless, presentation of a simple and empirical model able to predict the convergence of galleries of coal mines, far from complexities of numerical equations, can be focused by miners. In rock galleries, two kinds of instabilities often occur. In the first case, gallery instability occurs with a sudden destruction. In this case, discontinuities divide the rocks surrounding the gallery into particles and these particles can move or rotate. In the second case, instabilities often occur in very deep layers and with high initial stresses and with progressive convergence. In this paper, field studies and  measurements showed that present numerical relations for prediction of final convergence, ceiling heave and wall convergence of  galleries of coal mines are not applicable for convergence determination of the galleries of Tazareh Mine. Thus, a relation for more accurate estimation of galleries of Tazareh Mine, specially the gallery K21 (because of data accessibility of this gallery and similarity of geometrical-mechanical properties of this gallery to other galleries) has been presented. For this purpose, at first, effective parameters in such convergences as depth, coal layer thickness and slope, conditions of gallery floor rocks, mining time and destruction conditions were determined. In addition to parameters effective in convergence, a criterion for the estimation of the convergence value in underground coal mines galleries is presented by means of simulation of the  K21 gallery of Tazareh Mine parameters.  The multiple linear regression analysis was used to find the coefficients of the independent parameters by considering all effective parameters in convergence in a way that a linear relation existed between the independent and the relative parameters. The presented equation was validated by investigating the data being normal, constancy, variance and linearity of the relation between the independent and the relative parameters. A comparison between the values calculated by using the presented criteria and the real measured values in the monitoring stations showed that the presented model is highly capable of assessing of the mentioned gallery. By this empirical relation, estimation of convergence of coal galleries, in which the coal layer has different slopes, can be done.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Convergence
  • Multiple leaner regressions
  • Underground mine
  • Coal
  • Tazareh mine

[1] Panet, M.; 1982; Analysis of Convergence Behind the Face of a Tunnel, Tunnelling 82, Institution of Mining & Metallurgy, London, pp. 197-204.       

[2] Guenot, A.; Panet, M.; Sulem, J.; 1985; A New Aspect in Tunnel Closure Interpretation, 26th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, pp. 455-460.      

[3] Sulem, J.; Panet, M.; Guenot, A.; 1987; Closure Analysis in Deep Tunnels, International journal of rock mechanics and mining sciences, pp. 145-154.

[4]Filcek, H., Kwasniewski, M. A., 1993; Fundamentals of Mine Roadway Support Design: Rock-Support Interaction Analysis, Comprehensive rock engineering, 1st Edition, Vol. 2, Pergamon Press, London.

[5] Hoek, E.; Marinos, P., 2000; Predicting tunnel squeezing problems in weak heterogeneous rock masses-Part 1,Tunnels and Tunnelling International. 

[6] Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; 2001; Iterative turbo decoder analysis based on density evolution, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., vol. 19, pp. 891-907.

[7] Jongpradist, P. et al.; 2004; Rock mass deformational behaviors during the excavation of the large-scale NATM cavern in soft sedimentry formation, J. Geotech. Eng., JSCE, No. 764, pp. 1-10.

[8] Antiga, A., Chiorboli, M., Coppola, P.; 2007; Convergence-confinement method: limit of application of the closed form solutions compared with numerical models.ECCOMAS Thematic­ Conference on Computational Methods in Tunnelling, Vienna.

[9] OCANA, J. G. S.; 2008; Estudio de la Convergencia por Fluencia de Tuneles Circulares en Medios Viscoelastic Plastic, Tesis Doctoral, University Polutecnica de Madrid.

[10] Oraee, K. et al., 2009; Coal Pillar Strength Based On The Ground Reaction Curve– A New Approach, 28th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining, p. 4.

[11] دفتر نظارت، (1388)، گزارش زمین شناسی منطقه طزره.

[12] دهقان بنادکی، محمد مهدی؛ (1379)؛ همگرایی و کنترل آن در راهرو­ها؛ انتشارات دانشگاه شاهرود، چاپ اول. 

[13] Biron, C.; Arioglu, E.; 1983; Design of Support in Mines, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

[14] فتوحی، الف و اصغری، ف؛ (1387)؛ کتاب آموزشی آنالیز آماری داده­ها با SPSS 15؛ کانون نشر علوم، تهران.